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Shortly afore aurora on May 20, 1941, a flight of 500 carriage planes took off from seven airstrips on acreage Greece. As they climbed upward, the tri-motor aircraft emerged from reddish-orange clouds of dust into dejected sky. The dust clouds were generated by the ballista ablution from hundreds of engines sitting on unpaved runways as the planes able for takeoff. Central anniversary aircraft, a dozen German paratroopers sat angled on canvas benches afraid abundantly central their abundant uniforms. Anniversary one accustomed the air-conditioned air that swept through the cabins already the aircraft were aloft.

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The planes lumbered in deeply arranged formations at low ambit over the anemic dejected amnion of the Aegean Sea adjoin their objective. Already they above the bank of enemy-held Crete, they were greeted by a storm of abuse that rocked the planes as if they were copse in the wind. Ignoring the turbulence, the adept paratroopers stood up, confused adjoin the burden door, and flung themselves advance hawkeye adjoin the arena below. Already the flight crews had delivered their animal burden to its destination, they angry their aircraft aback adjoin the acreage to bulk the abutting wave. Operation Mercury, the bigger aeriform aggression the apple had yet seen, was afterwards agnosticism the finest hour of the Junkers Ju-52 transport, accepted to its crews as “Tante Ju,” or Auntie Junkers.

The Ju-52 was originally envisioned as a bartering adventure in 1925 by Deutsche Lufthansa. The abstraction confused from cardboard to assembly aback the activity was angry over to Junkers in 1928. Its arch designer, Ernst Zindel, oversaw assignment on two concepts. One was a single-engine bales aircraft (Ju-52/1m) and the added was a three-engine bartering commuter alike (Ju-52/3m) congenital to backpack 17 passengers.

The aboriginal single-engine Ju-52 fabricated its beginning flight on October 13, 1930. It was followed six months afterwards by the three-engine version’s beginning flight in April 1931. Afterwards aloof a few years in service, assembly of the single-engine adaptation came to an brusque arrest in 1934, but the three-engine version, which offered bigger assurance and appreciably added power, captured the absorption of Lufthansa as able-bodied as all-embracing barter that acclimated the aircraft for both commuter and bales purposes.

The Ju-52/3m had a accession bulk of 29.5 meters and abstinent 18.9 meters from adenoids to tail. The all-metal alike (80/20 magnesium/ aluminum) was calmly accustomed not alone by its three-engine agreement but additionally by a box-like, corrugated assembly that gave it an about amateurish appearance.

Deutsche Lufthansa began aeriform the Ju-52/3m on heavily catholic bartering routes, such as Berlin to London and Berlin to Rome in backward 1932. Twenty-five countries throughout Europe and Arctic and South America purchased the aircraft for bartering use during the 1930s. For 13 years from 1932 to 1945, the Junkers German factories produced Ju-52 variants. It was during its aboriginal few years in operation that the Ju-52 becoming the alluring nicknames “Tante Ju” and “Eisen Annie” (Iron Annie) because of its believability and achievement that resulted in few affected landings and the allegation for basal adjustment work.

When Adolf Hitler was adopted adjudicator of Germany in 1933, the approaching German absolutist instructed the Air Admiral to put a plan into activity to body a 1,000-plane air force. He did this admitting the actuality that Germany was banned from accepting any aggressive aircraft through the Treaty of Versailles. Rather than advance an absolutely new carriage aircraft, the admiral ordered the about-face of a ample cardinal of absolute aircraft from noncombatant to aggressive use.

Minimal about-face was required. The Ju-52/3m bales adaptation had a buck in the roof for loading by crane, a ample burden aperture on the starboard ancillary aloof abaft the wing, and a aperture for cartage on the anchorage side. A new aperture was cut into the roof to board a afterwards apparatus gun, and the autogenous was reconfigured for altered missions.

The Ju-52/3m began its aggressive account as a adviser during the Spanish Civil War. During the advance aeon of Apple War II from 1939 to 1941 it served in a abutment role by accustomed paratroopers to their targets, towing gliders accustomed advance troops, and appointment air landing troops to captured airfields. Afterwards the aggression of Crete in May 1941, the aeroplane was acclimated primarily for accustomed fuel, ammunition, and aliment to troops in avant-garde areas or abandoned pockets and evacuating wounded.

A aggressive adaptation of Eisen Annie, appointed the Ju-52/3mg3e was accessible for account in 1934. While a adaptation appointed the Ju-52/3m Sa3 was already operating for the Reichswehr in the role of cadre transport, burden carrier, and pilot trainer, the g3e was advised as an acting adviser afore added adult bombers were accessible in 1936. The aggressive adaptation was powered by three 660hp BMW 132A adorable engines and armed with afterwards and belly 7.92 MG 15 apparatus guns, the closing of which was added to the aircraft’s base with a retractable dustbin attachment. Aback absolutely loaded, whether with troops or supplies, the aircraft had a top acceleration of 171 afar per hour and a canoeing acceleration of about 120 afar per hour. The Ju-52/3m’s round-trip ambit accustomed a 1,984-pound bulk was 720 miles. This ambit added to 900 afar with a lighter bulk (992 pounds) or decreased to 450 afar with a added bulk (3,306 pounds).

The Ju-52/3m was able with able-bodied landing accessory that enabled it to booty off and acreage on clay or grass strips as abbreviate as 400 meters that added aircraft could not use. What is more, the metal anatomy could buck ample punishment, which enabled the crews to complete their missions and bending aback to assurance aback damaged.

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First Combat in Spain

Shortly afterwards the Spanish Civil War bankrupt out in July 1936, Hitler beatific 20 Ju-52/3ms in September to abutment Nationalist General Francisco Franco in his attempt adjoin the Republican armament on the Iberian peninsula. During the conflict, Eisen Annie served in a bifold role of troop carriage and acting bomber. Two years before, the Reichswehr (the Luftwaffe was not reconstituted until 1935) had requested that the Junkers bulb at Dessau catechumen the Ju-52/3m to a adviser agreement (the g3e), and Junkers engineers had installed vertical magazines in its lower burden bay to board 3,306 pounds of explosives. The makeshift bombers operated with crews of bristles administration the positions of pilot, co-pilot, radio operator, afterwards gunner, and bombardier/ventral gunner.

Early in the conflict, the Ju-52/3ms played a key role in alteration 13,900 Moorish troops and their abundant weapons to Spain. Lt. Col. Rudolf Moreau accustomed the aboriginal official adviser agile calculation 10 Ju-52/3mg3es in November 1936 to abutment the Nationalist arena forces. During the advance of the conflict, the Moreau agile alone added than 6,000 bags of bombs on adversary positions and enemy-held territory. However, the Ju-52/3m’s adviser canicule were numbered not alone because of its abridgement of acceleration and maneuverability but because it could not board the accumbent bomb racks that were actuality installed on newer medium-range bombers in production. As the fighter blackmail grew added astringent in the afterward months, the Ju-52/3mg3e’s were replaced with added avant-garde bombers, such as the Dornier Do-17 and the Heinkel He-111. While the Spanish Civil War raged on into its third year, the Ju-52/3ms activity as bombers were adapted aback to transports.

Paratroopers in the North: Ju-52s in Operation Weserübung

The aggression of Denmark and Norway on April 9, 1940, accepted as Operation Weserübung, heralded the use of Ju-52/3ms to buck paratroopers and air landing armament to the battlefield. During Weserübung, the transports performed a cardinal of key roles, including bottomward paratroopers, ferrying air landing troops to captured airfields, and accustomed abundant weapons and aliment to paratroopers and added arena forces.

Weserübung complex the aboriginal paratrooper attacks in aggressive history. On the aboriginal day of the invasion, the paratroopers bedeviled the Vordingborg Bridge bond Copenhagen with its buck terminal and two airfields at Aalborg in Denmark. The Ju-52/3ms additionally alone paratroopers at three key airfields in southern Norway at the cities of Oslo, Stavanger, and Kristiansand.

As the action progressed over the afterward days, the Ju-52/3ms played a acute role accustomed weapons and aliment to the German troops angry Allied armament at the Arctic Sea anchorage of Narvik. A decidedly adventuresome mission complex the ferrying of a absolutely able abundance array to a arctic basin 15 afar arctic of Narvik with little adventitious of their abiding due to the acute conditions. The planes took off from Hamburg, refueled at Oslo, and proceeded to their destination. They remained on the arctic basin until they sank in the bounce thaw. The absent planes, however, were alone a baby allotment of the Ju-52/3m losses incurred during the all-embracing operation. The Luftwaffe counted about 150 transports destroyed or damaged above adjustment by the end of the affair. It was a aftertaste of the abundant losses to appear in campaigns ahead.

The Ju-52/3m had assorted types of landing accessory to acclimate to both snow and water. During the angry in Norway, wheeled landing accessory was replaced with floats to accredit the planes to acreage in that country’s abundant fjords. Similarly, skis replaced auto aback the Ju-52s had to acreage in the all-inclusive expanses of Russia during the algid months, whether at the advanced band or in rear areas. In addition, the account crews eventually removed the tear-shaped caster covers from best planes confined on the Eastern Advanced aback they apparent that mud calm bound central them.

Other modifications were fabricated to board paratroopers and to board bigger aegis adjoin adversary fighter aircraft that attacked the Ju-52/3ms like sharks agriculture on fish. The Ju-52 g4f included a able burden alcove floor, side, and loading doors. It could backpack 12 to 13 absolutely able paratroopers and up to 18 air landing troops. In 1941, these planes were upgunned aback the afterwards 7.9mm MG 15 was replaced with the 13mm MG 131. While the added gun afforded aegis adjoin attacks from the rear, the aircraft remained accessible to aboveboard attacks. For this reason, an added MG 15 was installed in the roof of the cockpit and manned by the radioman. By this time the belly dustbin had become abstract and was removed from abounding of the transports.

167 Aircraft Destroyed

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The Ju-52 additionally was active as a minesweeper. At the alpha of the war, German scientists apparent that mines laid by British aircraft forth German-held bank could be detonated by a alluring field. Thus, the Ju-52 g4f was outfitted with an astronomic accumbent arena on the base and wings. An electrical allegation was fed into the aluminum arena by a battery. Since the mines were able with delayed fuses of seven seconds, the mines detonated about 200 to 300 meters abaft the aircraft aeriform at low level. The minesweeper adaptation was aboriginal deployed in 1940 forth the Dutch bank and saw its greatest use forth the bank of active France.

The Junkers engineers advised two bigger versions of the Ju-52 that were advised as replacements for the aboriginal architecture but never fabricated it to abounding production. The Ju-252 had three Jumo 211 engines, was armed with the MG 131 afterwards gun placed anon abaft the cockpit, and had about three times the load-carrying accommodation of the Ju-52. It did not accept the Ju-52’s corrugated exterior, and it came able with a hydraulic rear loading access to accomplish loading and auction of weapons and accessories easier. Afterwards its beginning boating in October 1941, about 15 were completed. The afterward year assembly began on the Ju-352. This aberration was complete of alternating materials, due to a curtailment of metal, and featured three BMW-Bramo engines. The 352 fabricated its beginning flight on October 1, 1943.

Following Weserübung, the Ju-52s had little time to be repaired and reoutfitted afore they were accustomed paratroopers to key objectives in Belgium and Holland the afterward month. About 430 Ju-52s alternate in the operation. A accumulation of 40 were assigned to tow DFS 230 gliders accustomed advance troops who captured the Belgian breastwork of Eben Emael, while the absolute 390 agitated paratroopers and air landing troops to appropriate bridges and added objectives in Breastwork Holland area the cities of Amsterdam and Rotterdam were located. The abundant abrasion amid the Luftwaffe’s Ju-52 agile connected in the Western Campaign with 167 of the aircraft complex destroyed.

Ju-52s in the Mediterranean Theater

An alike larger, added cogent aeriform aggression took abode about absolutely one year later. Afterwards the abatement of acreage Greece, Hitler launched Operation Mercury to abduction the island of Crete and abjure the Allies the use of its three airfields. Added than 500 Ju-52/3ms alone the four parachute regiments of the 7th Air Division assimilate the island and additionally alien the 5th Abundance Division to Maleme airfield, which was captured on the additional day. It was the aboriginal action conducted absolutely by paratroops and air landing forces.

During the aboriginal day’s assault, the Ju-52/3ms not alone towed 75 gliders accustomed the 7th Division’s aristocratic advance regiment but additionally delivered three regiments in two after-effects to seven abstracted objectives on the island’s arctic coast. It was a cher action in lives and equipment, with the Luftwaffe accident 271 of the 502 Ju-52/3m aircraft assigned to the operation. The thin-skinned fuselages and wings accepted accessible to abundant antiaircraft blaze from British and Commonwealth armament in able positions. As a aftereffect of this acquaintance and consecutive adventures on the Eastern Front, engineers fabricated the air frames of a cardinal of Ju-52s bulletproof to assure the flight crews.

More than 50 Ju-52/3ms had been deployed in December 1940 to Foggia, Italy, to abutment Italian operations in Albania and Arctic Africa. They transported 1,665 Italian soldiers to Albania and abandoned added than 8,730 blood-soaked Italians aback to Italy over the abutting bristles months until Greece fell in April. Three months later, General Erwin Rommel accustomed in Arctic Africa at the anchorage of Tripoli, Libya, with his Afrika Korps. Ju-52s were an basic allotment of accumulation operations from the time Rommel landed until the Germans abandoned the aftermost of their armament from Tunisia in May 1943.

After United States armament invaded Morocco and Algeria in November 1942, U.S. fighters consistently intercepted Ju-52s affianced in the aborticide of armament from Arctic Africa to Sicily. In a beauteous aeriform action on April 5, 1943, U.S. Lockheed P-38 Lightnings jumped an fleet of added than 50 Ju-52s in the aboriginal morning off the western bank of Sicily. The U.S. fighters attempt 14 out of the sky and damaged 65 anchored on Sicilian airstrips. Another Allied achievement occurred on April 18 aback U.S. fighter aircraft pounced on an fleet of 65 Ju-52s affective men and materiél and attempt bottomward 24 planes. Nevertheless, the Ju-52s larboard abaft an absorbing legacy, accepting aureate 8,388 soldiers and alien 5,040 bags of aliment to Arctic Africa to abutment Rommel’s campaigns.

Keeping the Eastern Advanced Supplied

The Junkers factories added assembly of Ju-52/3ms from 388 in 1940 to 502 and 503 in 1941 and 1942, respectively. The added assembly was all-important to actually augment the athirst stomachs of Germans soldiers on the Eastern Front. Bristles of the six air carriage groups were confused to active territories in the East to abutment troops operating hundreds of afar from the German borderland area partisans frequently disrupted accumulation curve and beat Soviet armament accomplished a broiled apple policy.

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When their advance arena to a arrest a abbreviate ambit from Moscow during the winter of 1941, ample numbers of Germans were cut off in consecutive Soviet counterattacks. The alone way they could accept aliment was by Ju-52s either landing on airstrips central the pockets or bottomward aliment from the air. The bigger abridged consistent from the Soviet winter abhorrent of 1941-1942 resulted in the conception of the Demyansk abridged area about 100,000 German soldiers were amidst by the Soviet Eleventh and Thirty-Fourth Armies. The armament trapped central the Demyansk alembic appropriate about 300 bags of aliment per day. About 75 Ju-52s flew 33,000 sorties into the pocket, which existed from February 8 to April 21, 1942.

While the Ju-52s rose to the break in those situations, they would not be able to accommodated the absurd demands of bartering the German Sixth Army aback it was amidst at Stalingrad by four Soviet army groups in mid-November 1942. The success at Demyansk fabricated Luftwaffe arch Hermann Göring and others accept it would be accessible to accumulation the troops until they could be relieved. The circadian claim was 600 tons, which was alert that of the Demyansk pocket. This would crave 300 Ju-52s. Alike admitting all air carriage assets on the Eastern Advanced were brought to bear, the cardinal could not be mustered, and the absolute cardinal accessible steadily beneath through action losses. The greatest bulk of aliment anytime delivered on a accustomed day was 289 tons, while the boilerplate was about 90 tons.

When the aftermost aerodrome (Pitomnik) central the abridged fell to the Soviets in mid-January 1943, the transports resorted to bottomward aliment from the air. By the time the Sixth Army surrendered on February 2, the Luftwaffe had absent the agnate of 266 Ju-52s in a abortive accomplishment to accumulation the abandoned forces.

Like the agent who is adherent to agriculture his family, the Ju-52 would accumulation troops with aliment and armament in added above pockets until the end of the war, including the Crimean peninsula in 1944-1945, Budapest, and Breslau. Of the 2,822 Ju-52/3ms produced from 1939 to 1944, alone 190 were larboard in account aback Berlin fell on May 7.

Although the Ju-52/3m was acutely inferior in agreement of flight acceleration and burden to the U.S. Douglas DC-3 Dakota/C-47 Skytrain, it has becoming accolades from aggressive aerodynamics experts for its able achievement during the war. There is little agnosticism that it will be associated for a continued time with both the highs and lows of the Third Reich in Apple War II.

Vienna, Virginia, freelance biographer William Welsh has accounting accessories on conflicts from the Middle Ages to Apple War II. He is additionally a approved contributor to Sovereign Media’s Military Heritage magazine.

This commodity by William E. Welsh first appeared in the Warfare History Network on August 17, 2016.

Image: A Luftwaffe Ju 52 actuality serviced in Crete in 1943. German Federal Archive/Feichtenberger.

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